Web Extra (Archive) (94)
Archeologist Clark Wernecke, director of the Gault School for Archeological Research in Austin, speaks about the Gault Site in Bell County, one of the richest Paleoindian sites in the world.
“Since 1993, I had been working on large Meso American archeological projects in Belize and Guatemala. But during the wet season, I’d be back at home to Texas, writing reports, recruiting people.
But I don’t sit still well, and they were just starting up in 1999 at Gault. I had heard that they were taking volunteers on the weekend. so I went out to volunteer. When my Meso American project ended, our principal investigator asked if I could work with him.
This was my first experience working on a Paleoindian site, and the first time I’d been able to drive at home at night.
But the big difference isn’t “where,” but “what.” In the Middle East, in the American Southwest, at Mayan sites—most places have architecture. You don’t have architecture at a Paleoindian site. You have stone tools and other organic clues, and you can’t afford to miss even the smallest clue.
The sheer quantity of artifacts at Gault is astounding; we will often have a thousand artifacts in the open excavation sites. People lived there for 14,000 years. Not only did the Edwards Plateau have an abundant supply of chert-one of the better tool-making materials—but there was also abundant fresh water.
Some of the most special pieces we’ve found are small pieces of limestone with incised designs; these are found throughout the world but have never found in a Paleoindian context. They are among the first art in the Americas.”
Marble Falls fans Cindy and Hugh Vaughn have been active in the Main Street Historical Society and the annual Bluebonnet Music and Fine Arts Festival. Intern Samantha Hyde shares the couple’s insider tips on this quintessential Hill Country town. This interview accompanies the Hills of Home feature in the July 2009 issue of Texas Highways.
TH: If you only had time to do one thing in the Marble Falls area, what would you recommend?
Cindy: If I were coming here for the weekend, I would go to Ginger and Spice for dinner, then to Lorraine’s to hear music and dance. And if it were a Sunday morning, I would go to Lost Creek Vineyards in Kingsland and have brunch. During the day, I’d go to The Slab for swimming or one of the sandbars on the Llano River.
Hugh: Picking the right weekend would be good, too. Come for the sculpture fest weekend [October] and you get to see the unveiling of all the new sculptures.
TH: You’ve been married since 1996—would you say Marble Falls is a romantic getaway?
Cindy: Oh, yeah! You can go antiquing or to the vineyard. We have bed and breakfast inns all over the place that are just beautiful.
Hugh: You have to mention the Wallace Guest House, too! The nights we have spent at the Wallace House are unforgettable because you can sit out on the porch and see Lorraine’s night club and on the other side, the neon lights of Uptown Theater, without the hustle and bustle of everywhere else.
TH: Well, there have been many musicians that have come through town. Are there any memorable moments?
Hugh: We’ve had some really great blues people come through. The late Clifford [Antone] came and then the late Uncle John Turner came and he played the drums for Jerry LaCroix for a couple of years. The blind piano player [Bobby Doyle] came and played at our second Pianorama [part of the Bluebonnet Music and Fine Arts Festival]. He played Ray Charles so good you would’ve thought you were in front of Ray at the piano.
TH: The Bluebonnet Music and Fine Arts Festival is one of many big, annual events that happen in Marble Falls. Do you have a favorite?
Hugh: The Bluebonnet Music and Fine Arts Festival is what we created and produced. From the profits on that, we started the Sculptures on Main project.
Cindy: I would say that Sculptures is my favorite now. There’s food and wine tasting. Some of the local vineyards and restaurateurs participate. Then you have the sculptors…
Hugh: They come from all over. The drag boat races [Lakefest; in August] are awesome!
TH: Let’s do rapid fire. I’ll list some subject, and you two give me your favorites. Musical venues:
Cindy: Lorraine’s would be first, and Uptown Marble Theater would be second. It’s very cool there.
TH: Main course:
Cindy: Chicken dish with peanut sauce at Ginger & Spice
Hugh: Lost Creek Vineyard’s blackened fish
Cindy: Crème brûlée with fresh berries at Lost Creek brunch
Hugh: Yes! Without a doubt.
TH: Artist or gallery:
Hugh: Main Street Gallery
TH: Weekend activity:
Cindy: Being on the lake
Hugh: The fireworks show July 4th and the boat parade [Flotilla]
Hugh: I’m not a shopper, but Smartie Pantz is pretty cool for grandparents.
Cindy: Main Street, the whole area
TH: Best thing to do under $10:
Hugh: The Walkway of Lights [during the holidays]
Cindy: All the parks or hanging out on the lakes and going to the Slab. The Slab is free.
TH: Splurge activity:
Cindy: That would have to be Lost Creek Vineyards.
Hugh: Without a doubt!
See related story: Ridleys Believe it or Not. Sea Turtles of Texas. See related slideshow.
By Samantha Hyde
Sea Turtle Facts. Did you know...?
If you come across a turtle on the side of the road on a drive through the country, chances are that it isn’t actually a turtle. Turtles live in water for the majority of their lives, while tortoises are the life-long land dwellers. If in doubt, look at their feet. Turtles have webbed feet and, sometimes, flippers to help navigate, and tortoises have round and sturdy feet so they can walk over rocks and dig burrows.
- Sea turtles hatch on land but spend most of their lives at sea. Males never return to land, and females only do so when it’s time to lay their eggs. In fact, nesting female turtles can swim thousands of miles to return to the beach where they were born.
- The world’s largest sea turtle is the Leatherback. The shell can reach up to eight feet in diameter making the weight of the turtle about 1,300 pounds. The large fins make the turtle the fastest as well. One Leatherback turtle was recorded going 22 miles per hour!
- The smallest sea turtle is the Kemp’s Ridley, which grows to be 27-32 inches long and 75-100 pounds.
- There are seven species of sea turtles that inhabit the Earth’s oceans. Along with the Leatherback and Kemp’s Ridley, three more can be found in Texas, including the Hawksbill, Green and Loggerhead. (Green sea turtles found in the Eastern Pacific Ocean are often called Black sea turtles.) The Olive Ridley and Flatback sea turtles can be found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
- When turtles arrive on land, many people can see “tears” falling from their eyes. Since they spend the majority of their life in salt water, sea turtles have special glands, located behind their eyes, to process salt out of their bodies.
- Sea turtles don’t have teeth as adults, but as hatchlings, they are born with one tooth, known as the egg tooth or caruncle. The little tooth helps the hatchling break out of its shell, a process that can take more than 20 minutes. The tooth looks like a white bump on the front of the turtle’s nose, but falls off a couple of days after the turtle leaves the shell. Baby turtles are also born with a yolk sac to feed them for the first few days.
- Turtles also don’t have ears. They “hear” through the vibrations in the water and changes in the water pressure. This allows them to locate food and predators. Turtles also have a strong sense of smell.
- Incubation temperature determines the sex of a sea turtle, though the temperature range varies depending on species and geography. In Texas, if the egg stays below 82 degrees, the hatchlings are mostly male, and if the temperature rises above 87 degrees, females are usually born. About an equal number of male and female hatchlings are born if the temperature falls in between. As the Earth’s core temperature continues to rise, more female hatchlings are being born, making it more difficult for female turtles to find a mate.
- Six of the seven species of sea turtles are found in the United States. Of those six, all but one is listed as endangered and that one, the loggerhead, is listed as threatened. Many factors contribute to their decline. For example, Leatherbacks feed on jellyfish, and the turtles often mistake plastic bags floating in the water for supper. Sea turtles often drown in fishing nets or are injured by boats. Currently, shrimp boats in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico are required by law to include a Turtle Excluder Device (TED) in the fishing nets. These devices allow about 97 percent of turtles to swim free once trapped. More than 70 laws have been passed to help conserve sea turtles on the local, state, national and international level. But you can help, too, by picking up any litter on the beach, keeping lights low on the beach-front properties and eating local seafood (caught with turtle-friendly nets). To learn more about turtle conservation, go to www.savetexasseaturtles.org.
Recipes from The Texas Highways Cookbook, available through The University of Texas Press. See www.utpress.com.
½ tsp lemon-pepper seasoning
¼ tsp. dried basil
½ T. chopped fresh parsley
½ tsp. paprika
1 whole red snapper, cleaned
2T. lemon juice
¼ lb. clarified butter
½ tsp. smoke flavor
additional fresh parsley
Combine lemon-pepper seasoning, basil, parsley, paprika, and garlic salt. Sprinkle mixture on fish.
In a bowl, combine lemon juice, butter, and smoke flavor; baste snapper, reserving remaining sauce. Place snapper in well-oiled fish-grilling basket and grill over medium heat (coals burned down to gray). Close lid and smoke for 15 minutes. Turn fish basket and cook another 10 minutes or until fish flakes. Baste with more lemon-butter sauce and serve lemon slices and fresh parsley. Yield: 2-3 servings.
Fresh Mango-Jicama Salsa (for grilled fish)
1 c. chopped mango
1 c. chopped jicama
¼ c. lime juice
1 poblano chile
2 T. chopped fresh cilantro
3/8 tsp. salt
Mix mango and jicama with lime juice; set aside.
Roast poblano in a very hot iron skillet over a gas flame or on a grill until charred on all sides. Transfer to a plastic bag, seal loosely, and let steam 10 minutes or more.
Remove seeds and membrane of poblano, rub charred skin off and chop. Combine with mango-jicama mixture, cilantro, and salt; mix well Allow to stand for about 3 hours. Serve at room temperature. Yield: About 21/2 cups.
TH Intern Samantha Hyde visits with Roger Graham, Chief Mechanical Officer at the Texas State Railroad. Check out the TSRR story in the May issue of Texas Highways.
When did you start your career with the Texas State Railroad?
I’ve been here 34 years. I got out of the Air Force in 1974, where I was an air traffic controller for four years. I came to the area because my brother owned some land here. The first job that became available was with the Texas State Railroad. They were starting up the railroad because the land was about to revert back to the landholders because it hadn’t been used for so long. And Parks & Wildlife didn’t want to lose their land. Emmett Whitehead, who was a state representative back then, came in and said, “Well, let’s just run a railroad.” I started out with the convicts cleaning the right-of-way and trying to get it to where we could run a train.
So, did you have an interest in trains before you got the job?
Not really, but I had an interest in mechanical things. I’ve always been good working with my hands, whether it’s on planes, trains, or tractors. Then I grew to like trains after I got used to working on them. It was and is real interesting.
Currently, you have worked your way up to Chief Mechanical Officer. What is your day-to-day work life like?
Right now, I have multiple duties. I started training the locomotive engineers, firemen, hostlers, and all the crews as the Designated Supervisor of Locomotive Engineers. Now, they need me in the shop, so they brought me in as Chief Mechanical Officer to oversee the cars, engines, and everything.
Part of your job is to oversee the restoration of the old engines. What is it like working with such antiques?
The engines and cars were built in the early 1900s. Some of the parts aren’t made anymore, so it is sometimes really hard to find the parts you need to prepare the engines. Some springs broke in one of the engines and it took about six days just to locate some replacements. We had to go to Tennessee. It’s a complicated chess game trying to keep everything running. Our engines are big. Our No. 7 engine [diesel] weighs 120 tons. Our steam engines vary in weight, but they are still heavy and big!
Because you have been around trains for so long now, can you tell by the way a train sounds what the problem is?
Absolutely! These engines are like people. They are all different and they all make different sounds when there is something wrong. People look at me kind of funny, but an engine will actually talk to you and tell you what is wrong. Going down the tracks, I can just listen to the different sounds and usually tell what’s wrong. Every once in a while, something will go wrong that I’m not familiar with, but that doesn’t happen very often.
What is your favorite part of your job?
When I was running [as engineer on the train excursions], seeing the smiling kids and people after the ride and seeing how well they enjoyed the ride was a joy for me because we did something to make them happy. Also, I always like to teach. It has always been fun sharing that information.
Working on trains, I am assuming that you have been on a fair share of train rides.
More than I can even count! I couldn’t even tell you how many runs I’ve made. I lost count years ago.
Is there any one of those trips that really stands out in your memory?
When I first started running, I was on a trip to Palestine, and a guy was sitting there waiting for me. He said, “Would you do me a favor?” And I said, “Sure, what is it?” He said, “When you go back, would you blow the whistle again at mile post 21? My dad started crying when he heard that whistle because it reminded him of the steam engines back when he use to ride them.”
What about passengers? Have you ever had any famous faces aboard?
Back in the 1980s, we were over in Palestine, and they were going to let Governor White drive the engine a little way down the track for publicity. In front of the train was a cameraman on a ladder taking a picture of the engine and the governor. I wasn’t really crazy about him moving the engine, but they wanted him to do it, so we let him. I told him what everything did—“These are your brakes, this is what makes it go, etc.” And I said when you want to stop it just push this handle back. Well, he got so excited he pulled the throttle out and away he goes! If I hadn’t reached over and grabbed the brakes he would have run right over the cameraman. He never knew what happened. He thought he did it all.
Third-generation polo player Tom Gose of San Antonio has participated in Albany’s Polo on the Prairie event—which has raised more than $3 million dollars for research and patient-care programs at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center—since the first match in 1987. His cousin, John Waggoner of Dallas, has been an avid player for two decades. Senior Editor Lori Moffatt chatted with the players to learn more about the game, its history in Texas, and about Polo on the Prairie.
“My grandfather—my mother’s father— started playing polo at Fort Bliss, in the early 20th Century,” says Gose. “That was part of the old Army system; the officers were encouraged to play polo. In fact, the breeding programs for polo horses were developed for cavalry horses. Horses on the polo field and on the battlefield are asked to do the same things—stop, turn, run fast, and above all, to wait for commands ; the horse is not supposed to do anything on its own.”
When my grandfather retired, he moved to San Antonio, a city with a long history of polo because of Fort Sam Houston. From the 1930s to the 1960s, the city was sort of a winter capital of polo; they played in Brackenridge Park; the current driving range was the old polo field. Most of the horses were kept at Fort Sam.
Then my dad got a wild hare, and in 1976, he built a polo club, on the site of the Retama race track. In 1979, we had a famous tournament there—the Cup of the Americas, between Argentina and the United States. We didn’t win, but it was a big deal. The Argentinean team brought 60 horses on a jumbo jet and stayed for four months.
We played the US Open there until 1986, when we closed the club. Polo dispersed somewhat, but it’s still being played; some in San Antonio and Austin, and quite a lot in Houston and Midland. The high-level players always use thoroughbred horses, because to be a good polo horse, you have to have lots of long-distance stamina.
For the public, Polo on the Prairie is a great chance to see people play, to get your first exposure to the game. A lot of people are intimidated by it, but they shouldn’t be. It’s a little like going to see a rodeo.”
John Waggoner agrees. “It’s one of the most special events anywhere. Without a doubt, there will be players here who are among the best in the world. But there’s also barbecue, fireworks, hanging out. The character of the event, in a way, is defined by where we play. It’s a HAY field! It’s a nice hay field, but it’s still a hay field. It adds to the character and charm.
“Visitors will see the best side of polo at Polo on the Prairie. It’s not all about champagne and hats and Prince Charles. Real polo is people who love horses.”
Founded on a stretch of the Brazos River in the early 1940s by sharpshooter and horseman Elmer Seybold and his wife Dorothee, the Seybold Guest Ranch—now the Double J Hacienda—enjoyed an impressive roster of celebrity clientele. The details, however, are sketchy, as most of the photographs and other documents from the period are carefully guarded by Seybold’s estate.
But even the apocryphal stories are intriguing. “In our kitchenette suite, the bedroom has a button next to the bed that may once have been a doorbell,” says current owner Jane Baldwin, who owns the Double J with her husband, Jimmy. “Reportedly, that was Ronald Reagan’s favorite room, as he could stay in bed to order room service.”
I wonder: Would that have been Jane Wyman or Nancy Reagan? (Wyman and Reagan divorced in 1948, and Nancy and Ronald married in 1952.)
We’ve also heard that John Wayne came to the ranch many times,” says Baldwin. He liked to stay in Room #1 because it had a private entrance and he could come and go as he pleased, without having to make an appearance in the courtyard. He loved the rodeos and horse races at Elmer's arena but most of all he loved the wagon races.
“We've also heard that Bette Davis visited here at least once. Drawn to Mineral Wells by the Baker Hotel in town, she basked poolside at the Texas‑sized (100,000 gallon) pool in the ranch courtyard.” (That pool no longer exists.)
“As for Elmer Seybold, the original owner of the ranch, he was on the Johnny Carson show in the late 1960s showing off his skills as a sharpshooter. Elmer had a
trick he liked to perform inside the Great Room. He would put a rifle over his shoulder, point it behind him, and hold a mirror up to his face so he could look in the mirror and see the giant fireplace behind him. Inside the fireplace was an axe with a balloon on either side. He'd fire the rifle at the axe, which would split the bullet. The halved bullet would then pop the balloons. He did this act on The Tonight Show.”
—as told to Lori Moffatt
In the May issue, Texas Highways presented a roundup of resorts across the state that offer a satisfying combination of recreation and relaxation. We’ve managed to convince the chefs of the Woodlands Resort and Spa and the Westin La Cantera Resort and Spa to part with some of their prized recipes—and they’re perfect for summer.
Griddled Macaroni & Cheese (courtesy the Woodlands)
½ lb. elbow macaroni
1 cup whole milk
½ cup shredded mozzarella cheese
½ cup shredded white cheddar cheese
1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
1 tablespoon scallion, chopped
1 teaspoon garlic, chopped
1/8 teaspoon nutmeg, grated
1 tablespoon butter
Cook macaroni al dente, and do not rinse. Combine cooked macaroni with other ingredients. Bake at 325 degrees in a lined loaf pan for 30 minutes. Allow to cool and set. Slice into 1-inch-thick slices, and sauté in butter until crispy and golden brown. Loosen your belt buckle, and enjoy.
(At the Woodlands, you’ll find this rich dish served with pork tenderloin medallions.)
Spiced Wild Berries with Cajeta Anglaise (courtesy of the Westin La Cantera)
For the berries:
½ cup EACH of dried strawberries, dried figs, dried cranberries, dried cherries, dried currants, and dried blueberries
1 ½ quarts port wine (a cheap one!)
1 ½ cups sugar
1 tablespoon ground cinnamon
¼ teaspoon ground cloves
½ teaspoon toasted allspice
Place all ingredients in a large saucepot and bring to boil. Reduce heat to simmer and cook until berries are soft and a syrup has formed. Place in ice bath and let cool. Serves 6.
For the cajeta Anglaise:
4 egg yolks
3 tablespoons sugar
2 cups heavy cream
1 tablespoon sour cream
1 tablespoon cajeta (goat’s-milk caramel sauce, now available at most groceries)
1 vanilla bean, split lengthwise and flesh scraped
(makes about 2 ½ cups)
In a medium mixing bowl, whisk together the egg yolks and sugar until they are very pale yellow and smooth.
In a medium saucepan, bring to boil the heavy cream, sour cream, and vanilla bean with its scrapings. Whisk about half into the egg-yolk mixture, then combine the two mixtures in the saucepan.
Over medium heat, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon, cook until the mixture coats the back of the spoon. Be careful not to scramble the eggs.
Strain into a clean bowl and set the bowl over ice cubes and cold water until chilled, stirring occasionally.
Serve with Spiced Wild Berries, a fresh-fruit salad, or ice cream.
The Texas Hill Country: A Food and Wine Lover's Paradise is one part cookbook, one part tour guide. Enjoy this granola recipe featured in the book. Read the accompanying story in the May 2009 issue of Texas Highways Magazine.
Berry Street Bakery House Granola
The Texas Hill Country: A Food and Wine Lover’s Paradise by Terry Thompson-Anderson (Shearer Publishing, 2008) includes this recipe from Berry Street Bakery in Llano. The bakery/lunch spot sells this delicious granola in small bags displayed on top of the bakery counter. It’s easy to make and would make great hostess gifts or Christmas gifts, sealed in plastic bags and packed inside colorful tins.
1 cup dried cranberries
1 cup dark raisins
1 cup golden raisins
1 cup mixed dried fruit
¾ cup canola oil
1½ cups honey
1 teaspoon cinnamon
4 cups rolled oats
4 cups wheat flakes
2 cups sunflower seeds
2 cups raw wheat germ
1 cup chopped pecans
1 cup sliced unskinned almonds
1 cup whole almonds
1½ cups coconut
Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Combine the fruits in a bowl and toss to blend; set aside. Combine the canola oil, honey, and cinnamon in a bowl, whisking until well blended; set aside. In a large bowl combine all remaining ingredients. Pour the oil mixture over the dry ingredients in the large bowl. Stir to mix well. Spread the mixture out in a thin layer on baking sheets. Toast in preheated oven for 10 to 15 minutes, or until light golden brown. Do not overcook. Remove from oven and cool on wire racks. When completely cool, turn the mixture out into a large bowl and mix in the reserved fruits. Store in an airtight container. Yield: About 1 gallon.
When San Antonio concrete artisan Carlos Cortes was a child, he often assisted his father, Maximo Cortes, as he created his signature faux bois (false wood) structures from concrete. The senior Cortes had learned his craft from master concrete artist Dionico Rodriguez, who had brought his highly secretive technique from Mexico to Texas in the 1920s (and would eventually marry into the Cortes family). Rodriguez called his work—fashioning concrete structures that look uncannily like wood—trabajo rustico, or “rustic work.” Cortes and Rodriguez worked together on many structures throughout San Antonio, including bridges and palapas in Brackenridge Park.
The younger Cortes was in his twenties before he realized he was destined to pursue trabajo rustico himself.
My father died in 1997,” says Cortes, “but he got to see me do the faux bois tree at the San Antonio Children’s Museum.” That year, Cortes went on to create a four-stor, faux bois “tree” at he Witte Museum near Brackenridge Park. Known as the H-E-B Science Treehouse, Cortes’ creation overlooks the San Antonio River and provides kids multiple opportunities to learn about science and nature.
Cortes’ latest faux bois vision—a 180-foot grotto along San Antonio’s new River Walk extension—features such elements as a waterfall, a bench inside the largest cavern, and re-created tree roots coming through the ceiling. “It looks like a natural cave, “ says Cortes, “with stalactites and sedimentary deposits of minerals, but it also looks very whimsical, with a tall pinnacle towards the center. I’ve also created a sculpture of Father Nature, with hundreds of seashells creating his facial features. I use shells to symbolize that this part of Texas used to be part of the ocean. And I love doing benches. I’m interested in doing work that is functional.”
Like his father and great-uncle, Cortes uses simple, handmade tools to replicate wood grain and create other organic effects. “We might use a fork with bent tines, or use a trowel made of a wide comb,” he says. “And when the concrete is cured, we stain it using natural mineral salts.”
“When I was a kid,” Cortes continues, “helping my dad clean the tools…helping out however he needed me… was mostly a chore. My dad was older than my friends’ fathers. He was 54 when I was born. I would rather have been out playing. But now, I’m glad that I was there and can carry on the family legacy.”
— Lori Moffatt